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HomeSéparateurFocusSéparateurInstitutionsSéparateurEuropean CommissionSéparateur25 European States: is this feasible?
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25 European States: is this feasible?


The IUJO celebrates the arrival of the ten new member States into the European Union

An unprecedented event in the history of the construction of Europe

The 1st of May was celebrated all over Europe, but in ten States, the celebration took on a new glow for the Stars of the EU. Celebrations were particularly joyous in ten of those states: the Stars of the European Union. For these countries, the dreams, hopes and occasional fears have finally become a reality. After some fifty years in existence, the European Union is now made up of 25 member states and has a total of 450 million inhabitants spread out over nearly 4 million square kilometres.
How did this come about?
The main stages in the construction of Europe

1946: After the Second World War, Winston Churchill advocated, in his speech of September 19th in Zurich, the creation of a power able to respond to the two world powers that existed at that time, the United States in the West and the Soviet Union in the East.

1948: The creation on April 16th of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) made up of 17 countries.

1949: Creation of the Council of Europe. Its vocation was to promote the awareness and the importance of European cultural identity, to find solutions to problems related to human rights and to develop democratic stability in Europe through political, legislative and constitutional reform .

1950: Signature of the Human Rights and Fundamental Liberty convention in Rome on November 4th.

1951: On April 18th, the Six (Belgium, France, Holland, Italy, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg) signed the Treaty of Paris creating the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).

1954: the European Court of Justice makes its first judgement on December 21st.

1957: The signature by the Six of the Treaty of Rome, creating the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom).

1960: On December 14th, the OEEC becomes the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

1973: Denmark, the UK and Ireland join the European Community on January 1st.

1981: On January 1st Greece joins the European Community.

1984: On February 14th the European Parliament adopts, by a large majority vote, the proposal for the creation of the European Union.

1986: On January 1st Portugal and Spain join the European Community. On February 17th and 28th the Single European Act, modifying the Treaty of Rome, is signed.

1989: On November 9th, the Berlin wall falls. The Democratic Republic of Germany opens up its borders.

1990: On October 3rd Germany is reunified. The “Länder” of former East Germany join the European Union.

1991: On December 21st, in Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan), an agreement creating the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is signed by the presidents of the Republics of the Soviet Union, with the exception of Georgia.

1992: Signature of the European Union Treaty in Maastricht on February 7th.

1995: On January 1st Austria, Finland and Sweden join the European Union.

1997: On October 2nd, the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Member States of the EU sign the Amsterdam Treaty.

1999: Official launch of the euro on January 1st. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain adopt the euro as their official currency (Greece adopts it a short time later). On May 1st, the Amsterdam Treaty comes into effect. On October 15th and 16th a special Council of Europe meeting is held in Tampere (Finland). It approves several political policies and priorities, including access to justice.

2000: On October 7th, as an aside to the Council of Europe meeting in Nice, the presidents of the European Parliament, the European Counsel and Commission solemnly proclaim the Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union. The Nice treaty is signed on October 9th.

2002: On February 28th, the euro becomes the sole legal currency in the twelve participating member states. On July 23rd, the ECSC treaty expires after 50 years.

2003: The Nice Treaty becomes effective on February 1st.

2004: On May 1st, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia join the European Union. This is the largest expansion in the history of the construction of Europe.
The construction of Europe doesn't stop there

And now? The constitution of Europe is a topical issue now more so than ever with numerous countries clamouring to join the EU: Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Turkey. No doubt others will follow suit, even though all of the member states do not intend to join the European Union and others have specifically stated that they do not wish to join, for example Switzerland and Norway.
A highly contrasting European landscape

The landscape of the 25 member states is extremely varied. France is 1,731 times larger than Malta. Germany is 209 times more populated than it. However, Malta has a population density 83 times higher than Finland! Welcome to the European Union of diversity.

Most enforcement agents are independent liberal professionals

As regards enforcement agents, the arrival of the 10 new member states has created a shift in proportional representation of the status of these professionals. Among the new arrivals, only Cyprus and Malta have a body of enforcement agents that enjoy the status of civil servant. In the European Union today, exactly 16 of the 25 states have a liberal professional body. Germany is soon to join the ranks of these countries.
In the countries applying for entry into the EU, Romania has already adopted a liberal model, whereas, the Bulgarian enforcement agents, who joined the IUJO in November 2003, are in the process of doing so.
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